The utilisation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale for industrial purposes is known as nanotechnology, or just nanotech. The initial and most popular definition of nanotechnology, currently known as molecular nanotechnology, focused on the specific technological objective of accurately manipulating atoms and molecules for the creation of macro scale objects.

A more generalized description of nanotechnology was subsequently established by the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which defined nanotechnology as the manipulation of matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers. This definition reflects the fact that quantum mechanical effects are important at this quantum-realm scale, and so the definition shifted from a particular technological goal to a research category inclusive of all types of research and technologies that deal with the special properties of matter which occur below the given size threshold. It is therefore common to see the plural form “nanotechnologies” as well as “nanoscale technologies” to refer to the broad range of research and applications whose common trait is size.

The National Nanotechnology Initiative later created a more broad definition of nanotechnology, defining it as the manipulation of matter with at least one dimension scaled from 1 to 100 nanometers. This definition changed from a specific technological goal to a research category inclusive of all types of research and technologies that deal with the unique properties of matter that occur below the specified size threshold in order to reflect the importance of quantum mechanical effects at this quantum-realm scale. As a result, the term “nanotechnologies” or “nanoscale technologies” is frequently used to refer to a wide range of research and applications that share the characteristic of being small.

The Beginning of Nano-Technology

Richard Feynman, a renowned physicist, originally presented the ideas that gave rise to nanotechnology in 1959 in his lecture There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom, when he described the prospect of synthesis via direct atom manipulation.

Although it was not well known, Norio Taniguchi coined the phrase “nano-technology” in 1974. K. Eric Drexler coined the term “nanotechnology” in his 1986 book Engines of Creation – The Coming Era of Nanotechnology, which put forth the concept of a nanoscale “assembler” capable of creating copies of itself and other objects of arbitrary complexity with atomic precision. Drexler was inspired by Feynman’s ideas. In an effort to promote a better understanding of the concepts and implications of nanotechnology among the general public, Drexler also co-founded The Foresight Institute in 1986.

Application of Nano-Technology

•One of the main uses for nanotechnology is in the field of nanoelectronics, where MOSFETs are constructed from short nanowires (less than 10 nm in length).

•Tennis balls may now be made to last longer, golf balls can now fly straighter, and even bowling balls can now be made to last longer and have a harder surface. Nanotechnology has been added to socks and pants to make them last longer and keep wearers cool in the heat.

•To help cuts heal more quickly, silver nanoparticles are being added to bandages. Thanks to nanotechnology, gaming consoles and personal computers may become more affordable, quick, and memory-rich. Additionally, systems for optical quantum information processing and picosecond information transfer on chips are being built.

•The development of diesel engines with cleaner exhaust emissions is now being pursued by scientists using nanotechnology. The catalyst for diesel engines utilised in these engines is now platinum. Cleansing the particles from the exhaust fumes is done by the catalyst.

•Additionally, nanotechnology plays a significant part in the quickly expanding industry of tissue engineering. In order to guide a cell’s development along a useful lineage, researchers try to imitate the nanoscale characteristics of the microenvironment when creating scaffolds. In order to support the formation of bone, for instance, researchers may model osteoclast resorption pits in their scaffolds.

•In order to achieve targeted medicine delivery in cockroaches, researchers have successfully employed DNA origami-based nanobots capable of carrying out logic operations.

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